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Beidou - China's Navigation System


Tyneside, UK
2017 Jun 28
Wednesday, Day 179

Maintained by:









Beidou System

China saw out calendar year 2012 with an announcement that the Beidou navigation system was fully tested and complete for the Asia-Pacific region and was providing a full service.


Development Series 2000-2007

The main characteristic of the development satellites was that they had no onboard clock and had to pick up a time signal from the ground. Alternatively, users could use a secondary time source to combine with the navigation signal for positional calculation.

Of the development satellites, Beidou 1D (2007-003A/30323) was retired early 2009 as the early operational satellites came on stream, possibly indicating that its navigation payload was no longer functioning. It remained at 144° east for all of its life, not quite the 140° longitude of the standard location.

Of the others, Beidou 1A (2000-069A/26599) and Beidou 1B (2000-082A/26643) remained on station, supplementing the operational satellites, until late 2011 when they moved to graveyard orbit. By then, several operational satellites were in use.

Beidou 1C (2003-021A/27813) seems to been in use until mid-2012 when it was moved from 110° east, where it had been since launch, to 86°C east. It remained there until 2012 December when it too was moved to a graveyard orbit. Beidou 4 (2010-024A/36590), an operational satellite, took over the station.


Regional Satellites 2007-12

Beidou LogoOf the operational satellites, Beidou 2/G2 (2009-018A/34779) was never used at a fixed location. It drifted from place to place round the geosyschronous arc, occasionally settling down and then moving on. Two possibilities come to mind in that it may all along have been a test vehicle for use away from the Asia-Pacific region. Alternatively it may have suffered degradation of its navigation signal, making it useless for full operation, so it could have been relegated to an engineering test role.

With the 2012 announcement, that the regional constellation, covering the Asia-Pacific area, was complete it contained vehicles in a combination of true geosynchronous orbit and 55° inclined geosynchronous orbit. The 20,000 kilometre circular MEO at 55° inclination was also in use but it was probably as a precursor to rolling-out global coverage.


Global System 2015-2020

China's next move was to be enhancement of the constellation to give full global coverage, to place it on a par with GPS and GLONASS. The aim is to complete this by 2020.

Rollout consists of a mixture of new satellites (Phase 3) in MEO and replenishments of the inclined GEO element of the constellation using second generation satellites. Once completed, the true GEO satellites may be phased out.

The following table lists all launches in connection development and operation of the Beidou space segment. Published locations for the geosynchronous Beidou satellites are (all easterly): 80°, 110°.5, 140° and 160°.


2000-069
CZ-3A
Xichang Space Centre, China

2000 Oct 30,   16:02 UTC
Beidou 1A   
2000-069A
26599

 
Satellite in geosynchronous orbit for China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". It was built for the development phase of the system and differs from the operational satellites by not having an onboard clock, and relaying time information from the ground. Moved to graveyard orbit 2011 Dec.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2000 Oct 30, 22:58274100.761017441890752.7124.98180
2000 Nov 9, 18:00421650.000335772358021436.120.17154140° east
2011 Nov 20, 17:17421660.000435771358051436.162.6715858° east
2011 Dec 21, 00:50425510.001936093362521455.873.2224482° west
2016 Mar 28, 18:03425510.001136127362181455.856.37301174° west

2000-082
CZ-3A
Xichang Space Centre, China

2000 Dec 20,   16:20 UTC
Beidou 1B   
2000-082A
26643

 
Satellite in geosynchronous orbit for China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". It was built for the development phase of the system and differs from the operational satellites by not having an onboard clock, and relaying time information from the ground. Moved to graveyard orbit 2011 Dec.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2000 Dec 21, 04:58273680.759719841781750.9625.02180
2000 Dec 27, 22:33421640.000235776357961436.060.1216380° east
2011 Nov 20, 20:05421650.000135782357921436.124.1218880° east
2011 Dec 18, 03:23424500.002235979361661450.714.2128610° west

2003-021
CZ-3A
Xichang Space Centre, China

2003 May 24,   16:34 UTC
Beidou 1C   
2003-021A
27813

 
Satellite in geosynchronous orbit for China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". It was built for the development phase of the system but used as a phase-2 satellite. It differs from the operational satellites by not having an onboard clock, and relaying time information from the ground. 2012 Jun-Jul: moved to 86° east prior to re-location of Beidou 4 (2010-024A/36590) in the opposite direction. Moved to graveyard orbit 2012 Dec after arrival on station of Beidou 16 (2012-057A/38953).

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2003 May 25, 08:02273300.759319941704749.4025.06180
2003 Jun 4, 18:16421650.000835751358221436.090.2937111° east
2011 Nov 20, 18:06421640.000635760358131436.081.0618111° east
2012 Apr 9, 22:09421650.001335733358411436.101.39356111° east
2012 Jul 6, 21:57421670.000135783357941436.191.5933085° east
2012 Oct 5, 20:03421660.000335776358001436.171.7815686° east
2012 Dec 14, 22:17422050.000535806358481438.161.9423480° east
2012 Dec 28, 19:57422630.000035884358861441.131.9725867° east

2007-003
CZ-3A
Xichang Space Centre, China

2007 Feb 2,   16:28 UTC
Beidou 1D   
2007-003A
30323

 
Satellite in geosynchronous orbit for China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". It was built for the development phase of the system and differs from the operational satellites by not having an onboard clock, and relaying time information from the ground. Moved to graveyard orbit 2009 Feb.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2007 Feb 3, 19:29273610.759919241775750.7025.00180
2007 Apr 30, 05:33421650.010835332362421436.126.30276144° east
2009 Feb 18, 06:54421640.012335269363031436.054.68304144° east
2009 Feb 20, 17:06424160.009235647364281448.934.65325138° east

2007-011
CZ-3A
Xichang Space Centre, China

2007 Apr 13,   20:11 UTC
Beidou 1  (Beidou-1 M1)
2007-011A
31115

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
2007 Apr 14, 06:08172400.618519821526375.4655.03174
2007 Apr 19, 08:46279100.00052151821545773.3855.26184
2011 Nov 20, 09:21279100.00082151121554773.4056.60192

2009-018
CZ-3C
Xichang Space Centre, China

2009 Apr 14,   16:16 UTC
Beidou 2  (Beidou-2 G2)
2009-018A
34779

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region. Entered GEO near 85° east but then drifted westward along the geosynchronous arc. It returned to 85° east during 2011 but was allowed to drift further, indicating that the navigation payload was not fully functional - relegating it to a test mode. It may have been used as a test vehicle for navigation in regions away from the Asia-Pacific region.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2009 Apr 15, 02:50244110.730121035857632.6320.53180
2009 May 2, 18:38421650.000335775357981436.090.9410585° east
2009 Oct 29, 21:46421720.000135791357981436.480.519175° east
2010 May 2, 15:08421650.000335775357991436.110.09764° east
2010 Sep 8, 22:41421350.004735561359531434.570.2915873° east
2011 Nov 21, 14:11421930.005135600360311437.561.3116084° east
2012 Oct 17, 01:38421630.005735544360261436.022.0416620° east
2016 Mar 28, 11:23421350.009035378361361434.584.5519465° east

2010-001
CZ-3C
Xichang Space Centre, China

2010 Jan 16,   16:12 UTC
Beidou 3  (Beidou-1 G1)
2010-001A
36287

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2010 Jan 17, 08:16242790.729518935613627.4820.44180
2010 Jan 25, 16:49421640.004435600359721436.081.83230160° east
2011 Nov 22, 09:49421660.000335776357991436.141.51192140° east
2016 Mar 29, 21:33421640.000335775357971436.071.59189140° east

2010-024
CZ-3C
Xichang Space Centre, China

2010 Jun 2,   15:53 UTC
Beidou 4  (Beidou-1 G3)
2010-024A
36590

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region. Moved to 110° east 2012 Nov to replace Beidou 1C (2003-021A/27813).

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2010 Jun 3, 02:29243140.729120935663628.8520.54180
2010 Jun 11, 20:15421640.000235778357951436.081.8219685° east
2011 Nov 22, 16:16421640.000135781357921436.071.1724384° east
2012 Nov 7, 15:48420410.000235653356731429.801.2318586° east
2012 Nov 23, 23:11421640.000335772357991436.041.25293110° east
2016 Mar 30, 00:37421660.000335773358021436.151.52301110° east

2010-036
CZ-3A
Xichang Space Centre, China

2010 Jul 31,   21:30 UTC
Beidou 5  (Beidou-1 IGSO 1)
2010-036A
36828

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region. Orbit is inclined at 55° to provide northerly coverage. It has an equator crossing near 118° east longitude.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2010 Aug 1, 03:35243980.730819035851632.1355.06175
2010 Aug 7, 17:18421590.002735667358941435.7955.09183116° east
2010 Oct 6, 10:52421640.002635677358951436.0655.06182118° east
2016 Mar 29, 21:39421690.004435603359781436.2954.25215119° east

2010-057
CZ-3C
Xichang Space Centre, China

2010 Oct 31,   16:26 UTC
Beidou 6  (Beidou-1 G4)
2010-057A
37210

 
First generation operational satellite in geosynchronous orbit for China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2010 Nov 1, 07:12243850.730619235821631.5820.48180
2010 Nov 10, 13:14421650.000535764358091436.091.82208160° east
2011 Nov 21, 12:34421640.000435769358041436.081.04196160° east
2016 Mar 29, 14:17421640.000535765358071436.060.98182160° east

2010-068
CZ-3A
Xichang Space Centre, China

2010 Dec 17,   20:20 UTC
Beidou 7  (Beidou-1 IGSO 2)
2010-068A
37256

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region. Orbit is inclined at 55° to provide northerly coverage. Equator crossing near 118° east longitude to share service with Beidou 2-05 (2010-036A/36828).

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2010 Dec 19, 02:41243790.730818435818631.3655.09175
2010 Dec 22, 13:38421650.001735717358561436.0955.24179120° east
2016 Mar 29, 17:33421670.004035621359571436.2053.67205119° east

2011-013
CZ-3A
Xichang Space Centre, China

2011 Apr 9,   20:47 UTC
Beidou 8  (Beidou-1 IGSO 3)
2011-013A
37384

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". It also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region from its 55° inclined geosynchronous orbit that crosses the equator near 118° east longitude to share service with Beidou 2-05 (2010-036A/36828) and Beidou 2-07 (2010-068A 37256).

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
Estimated orbit 239210.725319234893613.6555.10175
2011 Apr 13, 20:06420270.001235599356981429.0555.29333118° east
2011 Apr 15, 14:15421600.002135694358711435.8755.29184118° east
2016 Mar 28, 21:17421610.002635672358931435.8957.28204

2011-038
CZ-3A
Xichang Space Centre, China

2011 Jul 26,   21:44 UTC
Beidou 9  (Beidou-1 IGSO 4)
2011-038A
37763

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". It also provide time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region from a 55° inclined geosynchronous orbit crossing the equator near 93° east longitude, parked as an on-orbit spare 25 degrees to the west of the main inclined group of Beidou 2-05 (2010-036A/36828), Beidou 2-07 (2010-068A 37256) and Beidou 2-08 (2011-013A/37384) . Launch was about 20 minutes later than expected, indicating a possible unplanned hold in the countdown.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2011 Jul 29, 08:18243600.729820435759630.6355.12175
2011 Aug 6, 19:21421630.002035699358711436.0255.2118893° east
2016 Mar 29, 21:56421590.003835620359431435.8354.5520793° east

2011-073
CZ-3A
Xichang Space Centre, China

2011 Dec 1,   21:07 UTC
Beidou 10  (Beidou-1 IGSO 5)
2011-073A
37948

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". It will also provide time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region from a 55° inclined geosynchronous orbit crossing the equator near 93° east longitude - parked as an on-orbit spare along with Beidou 2-09 (2011-038A/37763) 25 degrees to the west of the main inclined group of Beidou 2-05 (2010-036A/36828), Beidou 2-07 (2010-068A 37256) and Beidou 2-08 (2011-013A/37384). Arrived on station 2011 Dec 10 at 10:55 UTC ±20 min.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2011 Dec 2, 07:46243810.731317335832631.4355.34175
2011 Dec 14, 06:30421630.001935704358661436.0155.1718995° east
2016 Mar 29, 03:07421640.003635633359391436.0653.7720295° east

2012-008
CZ-3C
Xichang Space Centre, China

2012 Feb 24,   16:12 UTC
Beidou 11  (Beidou-1 G5)
2012-008A
38091

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region. Its initial geosynchronous location was not one of the expected operational slots so the satellite may be an on-orbit spare.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2012 Feb 26, 16:05245280.730323736064637.1821.14182
2012 Mar 1, 00:44422240.002235751359401439.131.8830959° east
2012 Mar 5, 05:08421660.000335776357991436.151.871259° east
2016 Mar 25, 22:26421650.000235779357951436.101.5122459° east
2016 Mar 29, 00:32421650.000235779357931436.091.5222759° east

2012-018
CZ-3B
Xichang Space Centre, China

2012 Apr 29,   20:50 UTC
Beidou 12  (Beidou-1 M3)
2012-018A
38250

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". Launched alongside Beidou 2-13. The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region. Precise launch time 20:50:03 UTC. Originally identified by SpaceTrack as as 2012-018C but corrected May 10.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
2012 Apr 30, 15:39172730.619319721592376.5455.04173
2012 May 9, 08:17279050.00242146021595773.1955.16186
Beidou 13  (Beidou-1 M4)
2012-018B
38251

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". Launched alongside Beidou 2-12. The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region. Precise launch time 20:50:03 UTC. Originally identified by SpaceTrack as as 2012-018D but corrected May 10.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
2012 May 1, 01:45172590.618920021562376.0955.04174
2012 May 10, 04:27279110.00262146121605773.4454.97180
2012 May 20, 11:00279060.00272145221603773.2155.10180

2012-050
CZ-3B
Xichang Space Centre, China

2012 Sep 18,   19:50 UTC
Beidou 14  (Beidou-1 M2)
2012-050A
38774

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". Launched alongside Beidou 2-16. The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
2012 Sep 28, 15:55279050.00232146221591773.1955.00183
Beidou 15  (Beidou-1 M5)
2012-050B
38775

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". Launched alongside Beidou 2-15. The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
2012 Sep 20, 06:12172670.619319521583376.3554.98174
2012 Sep 28, 06:39279040.00172147721574773.1355.09210

2012-059
CZ-3C
Xichang Space Centre, China

2012 Oct 25,   15:33 UTC
Beidou 16  (Beidou-1 G6)
2012-059A
38953

 
First generation operational satellite in China's navigation satellite system, known as "Compass". The satellite also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region. Precise launch time - 15:33:04 UTC, injected into geosynchronous near its planned location at 80° east on Oct 28 at approx 10:00 UTC. On completion of testing, Beidou 16 became the final satellite needed to provide full navigation coverage in the Asia-Pacific region.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2012 Oct 25, 10:49238170.725216734712609.6820.54180
2012 Nov 1, 17:26421650.000335775357991436.111.8430480° east
2016 Mar 29, 20:18421650.000235779357951436.100.7525380° east

2015-019
CZ-3C
Xichang Space Centre, China

2015 Mar 30,   13:52 UTC
Beidou 17  (Beidou-2 I1-S)
2015-019A
40549

 
First of China's Second Generation, Phase 2 Beidou satellites in inclined geosynchronous orbit. It also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2015 Apr 2, 08:03426670.011535797367811461.8454.98172163° west
2015 Apr 28, 22:10421580.004135606359531435.7454.9617495° east
2015 Aug 10, 20:38421650.004635595359791436.1054.9117898° east
2016 Mar 29, 00:21421630.004035614359551435.9954.7618097° east

2015-037
CZ-3B
Xichang Space Centre, China

2015 Jul 25,   12:29 UTC
Beidou 18  (Beidou-3 M1)
2015-037A
40748

 
First of China's Second Generation, Phase 3 satellites for the Beidou system, supporting expansion to global coverage.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
2015 Jul 26, 17:03282370.01182152522194787.0454.98177
2015 Aug 13, 22:08279060.00052151521542773.2454.99253
Beidou 19  (Beidou-3 M2)
2015-037B
40749

 
Second generation, Phase 3 satellite for the Beidou system, supporting expansion to global coverage.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
2015 Jul 27, 11:47280830.00632152821881780.5854.99180
2015 Jul 29, 03:08278740.00122146421528771.8954.99344
2015 Aug 7, 12:42279070.00052151421543773.2754.99264

2015-053
CZ-3B
Xichang Space Centre, China

2015 Sep 29,   23:13 UTC
Beidou 20  (Beidou-2 I2-S)
2015-053A
40938

 
Second generation, Phase 2 Beidou navigation satellite in inclined geosynchronous orbit. It also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2015 Sep 30, 13:08243890.730619235828631.7455.05180
2015 Oct 8, 12:02421580.004135606359541435.7555.0217494° east
2015 Dec 10, 00:38421610.004335601359651435.9254.9517097° east

2016-006
CZ-3C/YZ-1
Xichang Space Centre, China

2016 Feb 1,   07:29 UTC
Beidou 21  (Beidou-3 M3)
2016-006A
41315

 
Second generation, Phase 3 navigation satellite, payload includes satellite-satellite communications links with other Beidou vehicles. Separated from upper rocket stage 10:45 UTC +/-15 min.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
2016 Feb 1, 14:39281250.00832151321982782.3655.00177
2016 Mar 3, 23:33279060.00012152421532773.2355.05277

2016-021
CZ-3A
Xichang Space Centre, China

2016 Mar 29,   20:11 UTC
Beidou 22  (Beidou-2 I3-S)
2016-021A
41434

 
Second generation, Phase 2 Beidou navigation satellite in inclined geosynchronous orbit. It also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region. Launch may have been delayed by ten minutes towards the end of countdown.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2016 Apr 4, 15:44421610.002535676358901435.9254.9718394° east

2016-037
CZ-3C
Xichang Space Centre, China

2016 Jun 12,   15:30 UTC
Beidou 23  (Beidou-2 G7)
2016-037A
41586

 
Second generation, Phase 2 Beidou navigation satellite in geosynchronous orbit. It also provides time and messaging services for the Asia-Pacific region. Orbit subject to confirmation.

epoch (UTC)
s-m axis
( km )

ecc
perigee
( km )
apogee
( km )
period
( min )
incl
( ° )
ω 
( ° )
GEO    
longitude
2016 Jun 12, 20:09237750.722521934574608.0519.28179
2016 Jun 23, 12:22421640.000235776357941436.031.84258144° east



Page date: 2011 Nov 21
Updated: 2012 Dec 31
Updated: 2016 Mar 30

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