Zarya - Soviet, Russian and International Spaceflight
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Launches and Orbital Operations

Tyneside, UK
2022 Jan 17
Monday, Day 17

Maintained by:

Special Orbits:

Coming Down:

Recent Years:

Between Times:

Earlier Times:

Orbital elements based on amateur observations

Satellite observers' discussion group

- Launches to Orbit and Beyond

Listed are launches, irrespective of outcome, that were irretrievably committed to flight towards orbit or intended to accelerate the payload to escape velocity.

Launch times are in UTC and are from the launching agency or estimated by 'walking back' along the ground track to the launch site. Most orbit data and decay information comes SpaceTrack but it occasionally contains inconsistencies (eg - incorrect re-entry dates or early sets of elements allocated to the wrong object) that need to be corrected from other sources.

To fill the gaps where elements are not formally published, usually because they have a classification of "Secret", some orbits are based on amateur observations using visual and radio techniques. Such data is published near-daily by Mike McCants, and the source observations along with observers' derived orbits can often be found in the web-based Seesat-L discussion group. Occasionally, early orbit data are published by satellite owners. In extreme cases, orbits are estimated from public data.

Apogee and perigee are measured against a spherical Earth situated at the focus of the orbital ellipse and with a radius of 6378.145 km. Care should be exercised when comparing with other published orbits because they may have been derived using a different model.

Users can go straight to specific launches by pointing to the page URL followed by the three digit launch number, eg -

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