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Zenit - Korolyov's Legacy


Tyneside, UK
2018 Jul 23
Monday, Day 204

Maintained by:



















Nauka Modules

The Samara Space Design Bureau designed and built a series of autonomous modules for independent operation while attached to Zenit spacecraft. They had their own power supply and relied on the main spacecraft only for stabilisation. They were cast off before retro-fire and left behind in orbit to decay naturally.

NaukaThe mass of a Nauka was 550-600 kg. Scientific or technical experiments accounted for up to 400 kg. The Samara Space Centre reports that 44 were built and launched over the period 1968-1979 attached to Zenit-2M satellites as their hosts. The statement is not correct in that, of the 44 launches, one was actually one of the orginal Zenit-2 variants (Cosmos 309) and another was the first Bion mission (Cosmos 605).

The Cosmos 309 Nauka was detected at the time by the Kettering Group. The tracking team reported signals indicating that Cosmos 309 had an attached science module. Consequently, the Group classified it alongside the Zenit-2M missions.

Cosmos 605 was a Bion spacecraft. Later Bions housed batteries inside a Nauka-like drum so it may be that the power requirements of the initial mission were lower than for later flights. Alternatively - Cosmos 605 should not be in the list but then it becomes necessary to identify a 'missing' Nauka.

The list of Nauka-carring launches here has been created from a combination of notes taken at various times, scattered information around the web, and reports of Nauka science results in printed scientific papers. It runs to 46 satellites because it includes two post-1979 missions that are not in the Samara total. They were Cosmos 1543 and Cosmos 1713, both flights of the 'Efir' high energy physics research payload.

Cosmos 208 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1968-022A       3156
Nauka:  1КС №1
1968 Mar 21, 09:50 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1968 Mar 22:  198 x 283 km,  65.0 deg,  89.4 min
First Zenit-2M launch - improved optical system. Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried the first Nauka autonomous module - it conducted high energy gamma ray experiments as well as observing protons with energies above 100 MeV and electrons with energies above 20 MeV.
Landed:
1968 Apr 2, 06:14
Recovery beacon:
TK
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 228 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1968-053A       3298
Nauka:  1КС №2
1968 Jun 21, 12:00 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1968 Jun 21:  195 x 259 km,  51.6 deg,  89.0 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module that conducted cosmic ray experiments and high energy gamma ray experiments as well as observing protons with energies above 100 MeV and electrons with energies above 20 MeV.
Landed:
1968 Jul 3, 10:05
Recovery beacon:
TK
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 243 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1968-080A       3418
Nauka:  2КС №1
1968 Sep 23, 07:39 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1968 Sep 24:  205 x 298 km,  71.4 deg,  89.6 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after eleven days. Carried Nauka autonomous module that contained infrared and microwave telescope to study radiation from the Earth - in particular, it looked at ice in the polar regions.
Landed:
1968 Oct 4, 04:48
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 293 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1969-071A       4072
Nauka:  5КС №1
1969 Aug 16, 11:59 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1969 Aug 16:  208 x 257 km,  51.8 deg,  89.1 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module.
Landed:
1969 Aug 28, 10:19
Recovery beacon:
TK - 19.995/20.005 MHz
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM
19.990 MHz (Changed 1969 Aug 19?)

Cosmos 309 (Zenit-2 11Ф61 №80)       1969-098A       4223
Nauka:  3КС №1
1969 Nov 12, 11:30 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1969 Nov 14:  184 x 364 km,  65.5 deg,  90.0 min
Photo reconnaissance satellite - recovered after eight days. It seems to have been an exception in that it was the only Zenit-2 (the remainder were Zenit-2M) to carry a Nauka module - equipment probably related to development of spacecraft systems. Landed 150 km NW of Tselinograd - 53°23' north, 70°09' east.
Landed:
1969 Nov 20, 05:31
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM
19.990 MHz (Changed 1969 Nov 15?)

Cosmos 368 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1970-080A       4571
Nauka:  1КС №3
1970 Oct 8, 12:39 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1970 Oct 09:  204 x 400 km,  65.1 deg,  90.6 min
(Part?) biological research satellite including the "Oasis" bacteriological cultivation system. Carried Nauka autonomous module equipped with spectrometers to measure fluxes of high-energy protons and electrons. Recovered after six days.
Landed:
1970 Oct 14, 12:14
Recovery beacon:
TK - 19.995/20.005 MHz
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 384 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1970-105A       4791
Nauka:  2КС №2
1970 Dec 10, 11:10 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1970 Dec 11:  202 x 291 km,  72.9 deg,  89.5 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module that contained infrared and microwave telescope to study radiation from the Earth.
Landed:
1970 Dec 22, 06:29
Recovery beacon:
TG
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 410 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1971-040A       5207
Nauka:  8КС №1
1971 May 6, 06:20 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1971 May 07:  205 x 279 km,  65.0 deg,  89.4 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module with radiation monitoring equipment.
Landed:
1971 May 18, 04:05
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 428 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1971-057A       5305
Nauka:  1КС №4
1971 Jun 24, 07:59 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1971 Jun 25:  207 x 258 km,  51.8 deg,  89.1 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module that made electron and gamma ray measurements as well using a scintillation spectrometer sensitive to X-rays in the energy range >30 keV, with a 2 deg x 17 deg field of view. In addition, there was an X-ray telescope which operated in the range 2-30 keV. The package detected several X-ray sources which were correlated to already identified Uhuru (another X-ray satellite) point sources and discovered new sources in the direction of the constellation Cetus.
Landed:
1971 Jul 6, 06:29
Recovery beacon:
TG
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 443 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1971-085A       5536
Nauka:  8КС №2
1971 Oct 7, 12:30 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1971 Oct 07:  201 x 305 km,  65.4 deg,  89.6 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module with equipment for radiation studies.
Landed:
1971 Oct 19, 04:34
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 477 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1972-013A       5862
Nauka:  14КС №1
1972 Mar 4, 10:00 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1972 Mar 04:  202 x 305 km,  72.9 deg,  89.6 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module that studied particle flux and radiation.
Landed:
1972 Mar 16, 04:48
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 484 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1972-026A       5933
Nauka:  5КС №3
1972 Apr 6, 08:00 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1972 Apr 06:  194 x 222 km,  81.3 deg,  88.8 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module that conducted cosmic ray experiments and measured solar radiation.
Landed:
1972 Apr 18, 05:02
Recovery beacon:
TG
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Intercosmos 6 (Energiya № 1)       1972-027A       5936
Nauka:  13КС №1
1972 Apr 7, 10:00 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1972 Apr 07:  203 x 249 km,  51.8 deg,  89.0 min
High-energy Physics. The main instrument on board was an ionization calorimeter assembled by the Soviet Union with some of components supplied by Hungary, Poland, Mongolia, Czechoslavakia, and Roumania. Also included was a multilayered silver bromide photographic emulsion stack designed to detect and track high-energy primary cosmic rays, as well as electronic equipment to detect, identify and measure the same radiation. A meteorite detector was also carried built with components from the USSR, Czecholslovakia and the Hungary. Total Mass of internal scientific instrumentation - 1200 kg, including 1070 kg for the high-energy particle detectors. Part of the payload was carried in an autonomous 'Nauka' module. Intercosmos 6 built on the work undertaken by the 'Proton' satellites, 1965-1968. The satellite was based on the Zenit recoverable spacecraft and returned to Earth after four days - the mission duration was chosen to avoid the detector emulsions becoming saturated.
Landed:
1972 Apr 11, 09:36
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM
VHF Transmit:
67.140 MHz, AM?

Cosmos 490 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1972-036A       6021
Nauka:  1КС №5
1972 May 17, 10:19 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1972 May 17:  205 x 285 km,  65.5 deg,  89.5 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module that measured electron flux, cosmic rays and gamma ray bursts.
Landed:
1972 May 29, 03:50
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 525 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1972-083A       6248
Nauka:  16КС №1
1972 Oct 18, 11:59 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1972 Oct 19:  207 x 269 km,  65.4 deg,  89.3 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module that tested components of the Condor control unit for the upcoming Yantar series - it was separated about day 9 of the flight.
Landed:
1972 Oct 29, 05:02
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 552 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1973-016A       6394
Nauka:  16КС №2
1973 Mar 22, 10:00 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1973 Mar 22:  203 x 311 km,  72.9 deg,  89.7 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module that tested components of the Condor control unit for the upcoming Yantar series - it was separated about day 4 of the flight.
Landed:
1973 Apr 3, 04:19
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 555 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1973-024A       6440
Nauka:  14КС №1
1973 Apr 25, 10:45 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1973 Apr 25:  215 x 232 km,  81.4 deg,  89.1 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module equipped with Cerenkov-scintillation telescopes to study electron fluxes with energies greater than 10 MeV and protons with energies from 400 MeV to 1.2 GeV.
Landed:
1973 May 7, 07:12
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 561 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1973-033A       6657
Nauka:  9КС №1
1973 May 25, 13:30 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1973 May 26:  207 x 293 km,  65.5 deg,  89.6 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module equipped with a gamma-ray telescope with an accoustic spark chamber to search for local gamma-quanta sources with energies above 100 MeV.
Landed:
1973 Jun 6, 05:55
Recovery beacon:
TG?
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 605 (Bion № 1)       1973-083A       6913
Nauka:  12КС №1
1973 Oct 31, 18:24 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1973 Nov 01:  215 x 401 km,  62.8 deg,  90.7 min
Biological research satellite, based on the Zenit reconsat (probably the 2M version) with the experiments payload replacing the cameras. Carried Nauka autonomous module The re-entry cabin was recovered.
Landed:
1973 Nov 22, 07:12

Cosmos 635 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1974-014A       7216
Nauka:  17КС №1
1974 Mar 14, 10:30 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1974 Mar 14:  204 x 325 km,  72.9 deg,  89.9 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module that tested navigation equipment and radio-altimeter for Yantar - it separated about day 4 of the flight.
Landed:
1974 Mar 26, 05:31
Recovery beacon:
TG
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 669 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1974-059A       7389
Nauka:  8КС №3
1974 Jul 26, 07:00 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1974 Jul 26:  207 x 230 km,  81.4 deg,  89.0 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 13 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module studying infrared radiation from the Earth and from the space background. The instrument was a 100mm diameter Cassegranian telephoto lens, with two helium-cooled detectors.
Landed:
1974 Aug 8, 02:53
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 721 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1975-020A       7705
Nauka:  5КСА
1975 Mar 26, 08:50 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1975 Mar 26:  206 x 229 km,  81.4 deg,  88.9 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module studying cosmic rays. Made simultaneous observations with Intercosmos 13.
Landed:
1975 Apr 7, 05:17
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 731 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1975-041A       7810
Nauka:  9КС №2
1975 May 21, 06:59 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1975 May 21:  203 x 296 km,  65.0 deg,  89.5 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module equipped with a gamma-ray telescope with an accoustic spark chamber to search for local gamma-quanta sources with energies above 100 MeV.
Landed:
1975 Jun 2, 04:48
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 747 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1975-060A       7990
Nauka:  22КС №1
1975 Jun 27, 13:00 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1975 Jun 27:  193 x 292 km,  62.9 deg,  89.4 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module.
Landed:
1975 Jul 9, 04:48
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 776 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1975-101A       8369
Nauka:  20КС №1
1975 Oct 17, 14:30 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1975 Oct 18:  199 x 289 km,  62.9 deg,  89.4 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module.
Landed:
1975 Oct 29, 06:29
Recovery beacon:
TG
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 780 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1975-108A       8442
Nauka:  20КС №2
1975 Nov 21, 09:20 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1975 Nov 22:  202 x 279 km,  65.1 deg,  89.4 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module with test equipment that might have been related to development of plasma thrusters for spacecraft.
Landed:
1975 Dec 3, 05:46
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 784 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1975-113A       8463
Nauka:  22КС №2
1975 Dec 3, 10:00 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Voskhod 11A57
1975 Dec 03:  214 x 230 km,  81.4 deg,  89.0 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module.
Landed:
1975 Dec 15, 06:29
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 848 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1976-082A       9280
Nauka:  19КС №1
1976 Aug 12, 13:30 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1976 Aug 13:  205 x 303 km,  62.9 deg,  89.6 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 13 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module.
Landed:
1976 Aug 25, 04:36
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 856 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1976-096A       9435
Nauka:  23КС №1
1976 Sep 22, 09:30 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1976 Sep 23:  203 x 300 km,  65.1 deg,  89.6 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 13 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module with X-ray spectrometers covering the 20-320 keV range, and gamma-ray spectrometers sensitive to 100-4000 MeV to observe high-energy diffuse gamma-radiation. X-ray studies were conducted of the Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-2 sources in particular. Unexpectedly, no X-ray bursts were detected during the course of the mission.
Landed:
1976 Oct 5, 06:29
Recovery beacon:
TG
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 898 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1977-020A       9871
Nauka:  25КС №1
1977 Mar 17, 08:30 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1977 Mar 17:  216 x 229 km,  81.4 deg,  89.0 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 13 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module.
Landed:
1977 Mar 30, 04:48
Recovery beacon:
TG
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 914 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1977-043A       10030
Nauka:  26КС №1
1977 May 31, 07:30 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1977 Jun 01:  203 x 306 km,  65.1 deg,  89.6 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 13 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module with X-ray spectrometers covering the 20-320 keV range, and gamma-ray spectrometers sensitive to 100-4000 MeV to observe high-energy diffuse gamma-radiation.
Landed:
1977 Jun 13, 04:48
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 966 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1977-115A       10510
Nauka:  26КС №2
1977 Dec 12, 09:40 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1977 Dec 12:  204 x 296 km,  65.1 deg,  89.6 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 12 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module but Kettering group telemetry analysis did not indicate its presence.
Landed:
1977 Dec 24, 06:43
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 973 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1977-124A       10540
Nauka:  27КС №1
1977 Dec 27, 09:20 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1977 Dec 27:  200 x 330 km,  71.5 deg,  89.9 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 13 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module.
Landed:
1978 Jan 9, 07:12
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 1004 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1978-043A       10846
Nauka:  23КС №2
1978 May 5, 15:30 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1978 May 06:  205 x 289 km,  62.9 deg,  89.5 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 13 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module.
Landed:
1978 May 18, 07:12
Recovery beacon:
TG
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK/PDM

Cosmos 1026 (Energiya №2)       1978-069A       10977
Nauka:  13КС №2
1978 Jul 2, 09:30 UTC
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1978 Jul 02:  212 x 245 km,  51.8 deg,  89.0 min
Investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space, using equipment similar to that aboard Intercosmos 6 (1972-27A). Part of the payload was carried in an autonomous 'Nauka' module.
Not Recovered
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK

Cosmos 1032 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1978-088A       11029
Nauka:  25КС №2
1978 Sep 19, 08:05 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1978 Sep 19:  215 x 224 km,  81.4 deg,  89.0 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 13 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module.
Landed:
1978 Oct 2, 04:05
Recovery beacon:
TG
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK

Cosmos 1061 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1978-114A       11148
Nauka:  32КС №1
1978 Dec 14, 15:20 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1978 Dec 15:  202 x 310 km,  62.9 deg,  89.7 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after 13 days. Carried Nauka autonomous module.
Landed:
1978 Dec 27, 06:29
Recovery beacon:
TG
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK

Cosmos 1070 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor)       1979-001A       11229
Nauka:  30КС №1
1979 Jan 11, 15:00 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1979 Jan 11:  204 x 295 km,  62.9 deg,  89.5 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite - recovered after nine days, a shorter mission than normal. Carried Nauka autonomous module.
Landed:
1979 Jan 20, 07:12
Recovery beacon:
TG
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK

Cosmos 1102 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor-Priroda)       1979-043A       11368
Nauka:  32КС №3
1979 May 25, 07:00 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1979 May 25:  211 x 260 km,  81.4 deg,  89.3 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite. The launch announcement mentioned "...investigation of natural resources .... in the interests of the economy and international cooperation". Carried Nauka autonomous module.
Landed:
1979 Jun 7, 02:24
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK

Cosmos 1106 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor-Priroda)       1979-054A       11399
Nauka:  33КС №3
1979 Jun 12, 07:00 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1979 Jun 12:  215 x 236 km,  81.4 deg,  89.1 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite. The launch announcement mentioned "...investigation of natural resources .... in the interests of the economy and international cooperation". Carried Nauka autonomous module that included two identical combined scintillation spectrometers for the detection of hard X-rays and gamma rays.
Landed:
1979 Jun 25, 03:22
Recovery beacon:
TG
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK

Cosmos 1122 (Zenit-2M 11Ф690, Gektor-Priroda)       1979-075A       11491
Nauka:  31КС №1
1979 Aug 17, 07:45 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1979 Aug 17:  215 x 234 km,  81.4 deg,  89.1 min
Photo-reconnaissance satellite. The launch announcement mentioned "...investigation of natural resources .... in the interests of the economy and international cooperation". Carried Nauka autonomous module. This was the final launch of a Zenit-2M.
Landed:
1979 Aug 30, 04:48
HF Transmit:
19.995 MHz, FSK

Cosmos 1543 (Efir №1)       1984-026A       14797
Nauka:  36КС №1
1984 Mar 10, 17:00 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1984 Mar 10:  216 x 395 km,  62.9 deg,  90.7 min
1984 Apr 04:  217 x 380 km,  62.9 deg,  90.5 min
Science satellite, based on the Bion derivative of the Zenit spacecraft, studying the energy spectrum and charge composition of primary cosmic rays with energy above 2 TeV. The main instrument was the 'Sokol', consisting of an ionization calorimeter and two Cerenkov detectors which was used to investigate primary cosmic rays at energies of 1-10 TeV. Total mass of scientific equipment - 2450 kg. Part of the payload was carried in an autonomous 'Nauka' module. Efir in English is 'Ether'.
Not Recovered

Cosmos 1713 (Efir №2)       1985-120A       16429
Nauka:  36КС №2
1985 Dec 27, 17:04 UTC
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Soyuz-U
1985 Dec 28:  217 x 399 km,  62.9 deg,  90.7 min
1986 Jan 21:  217 x 391 km,  62.9 deg,  90.6 min
1986 Jan 22:  188 x 303 km,  62.8 deg,  89.5 min
Science satellite, based on the Bion derivative of the Zenit spacecraft, studying the energy spectrum and charge composition of primary cosmic rays with energy above 2 TeV. The main instrument was the 'Sokol-2', consisting of an ionization calorimeter and Cerenkov detectors, which was used to investigate primary cosmic rays at energies of 1-10 TeV. Total mass of scientific equipment - 2450 kg. Part of the payload was carried in an autonomous 'Nauka' module. Efir in English is 'Ether'.
Not Recovered
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